An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. The Cardinal depended totally on Anne's support and had to use all his influence on the Queen to avoid nullifying, but to restrain some of her radical actions. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. AKA Louis-Dieudonné. Only four days later he would have turned 77 years old. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children. , When he legitimized his children by Madame de Montespan on 20 December 1673, Françoise d'Aubigné became the royal governess at Saint-Germain. As tensions mounted, Louis decided to acknowledge James Stuart, the son of James II, as king of England on the latter's death, infuriating William III. The members refused to comply and ordered all of the king's earlier financial edicts burned. The interest on the debt was reduced from 52 million to 24 million livres. , Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne. Séguier was the person who had interrogated Anne in 1637, treating her like a "common criminal" as she described her treatment following the discovery that she was giving military secrets and information to Spain. , France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike). His choices were strategic and varied. He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes, as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in 1678, dental abscesses in 1696, along with recurring boils, fainting spells, gout, dizziness, hot flushes, and headaches. Composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. Discover more on this Foundation.  The marriage treaty specified that Maria Theresa was to renounce all claims to Spanish territory for herself and all her descendants. Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of the elegant Louvre Colonnade designed by three Frenchmen: Louis Le Vau, Charles Le Brun, and Claude Perrault. The French claim derived from Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria (the older sister of Philip IV of Spain) and his wife Maria Theresa (Philip IV's eldest daughter). All these events were witnessed by Louis and largely explained his later distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties. However, Louis altered the sentence to life-imprisonment and abolished Fouquet's post. On January 21, he walked steadfastly to the guillotine and was executed.  This discrimination did not encounter much Protestant resistance, and a steady conversion of Protestants occurred, especially among the noble elites. Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg, Charles II named the Archduke Charles as his sole heir. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. , Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic, then seize the Spanish Netherlands. Louis XIV became king at the age of four. Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if King Louis were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house. Conseil royal des finances ("Royal Council of Finances") who was headed by the "chef du conseil des finances" (an honorary post in most cases)—this was one of the few posts in the council that was opened to the high aristocracy. La Mort de Louis XIV. Anne interfered much more in internal policy than foreign affairs; she was a very proud queen who insisted on the divine rights of the King of France.  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