importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing

Principles of Remote Sensing - Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing, CRISP. The longest visible wavelength is red and the shortest is violet. Electromagnetic radiation spectrum In remote sensing terminology, electromagnetic energy is generally expressed in terms of wavelength, λ. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. These sensors measure land and sea surface temperature, vegetation properties, cloud … Remote sensing can be used to study damages caused by earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods and melting of ice in polar regions. It is also used to warn people about impending cyclones. Some Earth surface materials, primarily rocks and minerals, fluoresce or emit visible light when illuminated by UV radiation. The interpretation of image can be done visually or electronically with the help of computers and image processing softwares. Electromagnetic waves are energy transported through space in the form of periodic disturbances of electric and magnetic fields. The visible wavelengths cover a range from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 µm. The next portion of the spectrum of interest is the infrared (IR) region which covers the wavelength range from approximately 0.7 µm to 100 µm - more than 100 times as wide as the visible portion! Electromagnetic Waves. Progressive stages in remote sensing are as follows: Emission of electromagnetic radiation, or EMR (sun/self- emission) Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth, as well as absorption and scattering Wavelength Regions of Electromagnetic Spectrum used in Remote Sensing. It allows geographers to look at change over a large area over time. The light which our eyes - our "remote sensors" - can detect is part of the visible spectrum. Remote sensing technologies rely on a variety of electromagnetic energy. Most passive systems used by remote sensing applications operate in the visible, infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is the term used to describe to entire range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. DMPQ- . Blue, green, and red are the primary colours or wavelengths of the visible spectrum. In addition, remote sensing takes advantage of the interaction of earth materials with various wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum (recall last week’s lecture). Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. Can you take photographs in these wavelength ranges? Violet: 0.4 - 0.446 µmBlue: 0.446 - 0.500 µmGreen: 0.500 - 0.578 µmYellow: 0.578 - 0.592 µmOrange: 0.592 - 0.620 µmRed: 0.620 - 0.7 µm. Electromagnetic radiation and Electromagnetic spectrum. Remote sensing is extensively used in India for weather forecasting. For enquiries, contact us. For the most purposes ultraviolet or UV of the spectrum shortest wavelengths are practical for... 2 Visible Spectrum. The sun radiates electro-magnetic energy with a peak wavelength of 0.5 μm. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). In most of the cases, the Source of energy is the Sun. Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. Different Remote sensing is the art and science of recording, measuring, and analyzing information about a phenomenon from a distance. For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths which are practical for remote sensing. Most common remote sensing systems operate in one or several of the visible, infrared and microwave portions of the … When solar energy strikes an object or molecules of the atmosphere/hydrosphere, many types of interaction are possible. Because of the special nature of this region and its importance to remote sensing in Canada, an entire chapter (Chapter 3) of the tutorial is dedicated to microwave sensing. After recording of energy, the resulting set of data is transmitted to the receiving station. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Lesson #1: Remote Sensing and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Introduction/Rationale Students have seen rainbows in the sky, on a soap bubble, or even from the spray of a garden hose. Electromagnetic Spectrum. This theory describes the EM energy as travelling in a harmonic sinusoidal fashion at the velocity of light. INTRODUCTION. [ Figure 1 - Text Version] For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths which are practical for remote sensing. The infrared region can be divided into two categories based on their radiation properties - the reflected IR, and the emitted or thermal IR. Most sensing devices record information about an object by measuring an object’s transmission of electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces. Yes and no. DMPQ- Write an essay about the evolution of Paintings during Mughal period. The total amount of emitted radiation increases with the body’s absolute temperature and peaks at progressively shorter wavelengths. The sensor is a remote device to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation. The visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are the most important for the type of remote sensing discussed in this course. There are a number of stages in a Remote Sensing process, and each of them is important for successful operation. This radiation is just beyond the violet portion of the visible wavelengths, hence its name. The visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum is from about 400 nm to about 700 nm. Radiation Interaction with the Earth The energy of photon is. It can be used to study deforestation, degradation of fertile lands, pollution in atmosphere, desertification, eutrophication of large water bodies and oil spillage from oil tankers. The portion of the spectrum of more recent interest to remote sensing is the microwave region from about 1 mm to 1 m. This covers the longest wavelengths used for remote sensing. You will not receive a reply. The sun, being a major source of energy, radiation and illumination, allows capturing reflected light with conventional cameras and films. Remote sensing is also used to get the information from a remote location without being physically present in that location. The energy source illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. Why is this important in remote sensing?1)Determines the spectral signal that can be remotely sensed (more absorbed energy, the less reflected to sensed). Photons, which are without mass, move at the speed of light—300,000 km/sec (186,000 miles/sec) in the form of waves analogous to the way waves propagate through the oceans. Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from shorter wavelengths (gamma rays to x rays) to the longer wavelengths (microwave and radio waves). • EMR is a dynamic form of energy. Electromagnetic spectrum, the entire distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to frequency or wavelength.Although all electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, they do so at a wide range of frequencies, wavelengths, and photon energies. Although many characteristics of EM energy are easily described by wave theory, another theory known as particle theory offers insight into how electromagnetic energy interacts with matter. The basic components of remote sensing system are given below: The target is the object or material being studied. But no photographic films exist to directly record emissive infrared (heat). What is electromagnetic radiation (EMR)? The energy is: However, modern Remote Sensing means acquiring information about earth’s land and water surfaces by using reflected or emitted electromagnetic energy. Different objects return different amount of energy in different bands … EMR is a dynamic form of energy that propagates as wave motion at a velocity of c = 3 x 1010 cm/sec. Remote sensing uses electromagnetic waves, such as IR band, Visible band, and Microwave band to sense the Earth’s surface. Visible Spectrum. 2)Determines the thermal infrared response of an object (more absorbed energy across all wavelengths, the … The relationship between the above is: Electromagnetic energy radiates in accordance with the basic wave theory. The thermal IR covers wavelengths from approximately 3.0 µm to 100 µm. Sensors detect and measure electromagnetic energy in different portions of the spectrum. It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth’s surface. They are defined as such because no single primary colour can be created from the other two, but all other colours can be formed by combining blue, green, and red in various proportions. Electro-optical remote sensing involves the acqui-sition of information about an object or scene with-out coming into physical contact with that object or scene. Different objects return different amount of energy in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, incident upon it. The level of energy is represented by the electromagnetic spectrum, which is the range of energy that comes from the Sun or any other object in the Universe. The thermal IR region is quite different than the visible and reflected IR portions, as this energy is essentially the radiation that is emitted from the Earth's surface in the form of heat. A good number of studies carried over nearly three decades testifies the role of remote sensing in soil related studies. Remote sensing data is helpful for updating existing geological maps, rapid preparation of lineament and tectonic maps, identifying the sites for quarrying the minerals and helpful in locating fossil fuel deposits. DMPQ- “India’s remote sensing satellite system has important role in it’s development.” Elucidate. EMR transmit cross space in the wave form and in the speed of light. Hue refers to the wavelength of light, which we commonly call "colour", while saturation indicates how pure the colour is, or how much white is mixed in with it. Electromagnetic Radiation. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has two parts: the reflective and the emissive. The most important and primary requirement for any remote sensing process is to have an energy source. Reading the newspaper, watching cars driving in front of you are all remote sensing activities. From the following definitions, we can have a better understanding about Remote Sensing: According to White (1977), Remote Sensing includes all methods of obtaining pictures or other Electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) represents the continuum of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arranged on the basis of wavelengths or frequency. This information is used by regional planners and administrators to frame policy matters for all-round development of the region. Hue and saturation are independent characteristics of colour. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. The shorter wavelengths have properties similar to the thermal infrared region while the longer wavelengths approach the wavelengths used for radio broadcasts. Remote Sensing: Introduction and Basic Concepts Basic concepts of remote sensing D Nagesh Kumar, IISc, Bangalore 3 M1L1 Fig. Energy Sources and Electromagnetic Radiation Two characteristics of electromagnetic radiation are … It is important to note how small a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is represented by the visible region. This radiation is just beyond the violet portion of the visible wavelengths, hence its name. If they did, then they would have to be cooled (and kept very cold during use), which would be very impractical. There are photographic films in black and white as well as colour emulsions, which are sensitive to the reflective portion of the infrared band and these are used for scientific and artistic purposes too. The reflected IR covers wavelengths from approximately 0.7 µm to 3.0 µm. Wavelengths are measured in micrometers (μm) or nanometers (nm). Remote sensing data is useful in obtaining up-to-date land use pattern of large areas at any given time and also monitor changes that occur from time to time. [jetpack_subscription_form title=”Subscribe to GoaPSC Notes” subscribe_text=”Never Miss any GoaPSC important update!” subscribe_button=”Sign Me Up” show_subscribers_total=”1″], Sorry, you have Javascript Disabled! Optical remote sensing satellites use reflected light to detect electromagnetic energy on the Earth’s surface. For instance, "pink" can be considered a less saturated version of "red". Principles of remote sensing Detection and discrimination of objects or surface features means detecting and recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface material. Progressive stages in remote sensing are as follows: At temperature above absolute zero, all objects radiate electromagnetic energy by virtue of their atomic and molecular oscillations. The light which our eyes - our "remote sensors" - can detect is part of the visible spectrum. Common wavelengths of what we perceive as particular colours from the visible portion of the spectrum are listed below. • The foundation of remote sensing technology is based on the measurement and interpretation of the patterns of EMR. Remote Sensing. The visible portion of this radiation can be shown in its component colours when sunlight is passed through a prism, which bends the light in differing amounts according to wavelength. Remote sensing data obtained in the visible and reflective infrared regions mainly depends on the reflectance of objects on the ground … The Source of energy which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target of interest. Sensors are also used to measure the given-off energy or emitted energy by the target; reflected-off energy of the target; or transmitted energy from the target. Although we see sunlight as a uniform or homogeneous colour, it is actually composed of various wavelengths of radiation in primarily the ultraviolet, visible and infrared portions of the spectrum. All these technologies are integrated to act as one complete system in itself, known as Remote Sensing System. It is important to recognize how small the visible portion is relative to the rest of the spectrum. All the components in the system work together, to measure and record the information about the target without making physical contact. The interpretation techniques have also undergone change over a … To see this page as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript! Current bathymetric and ice LIDAR generally uses green light (e.g., NASA’s HSRL-1 LIDAR, with a spectrum of 532 nm). Trace the sequence of events during French revolution. 6. This is important since most natural EMR sources have very broad power spectra. Wavelength Regions Important To Remote Sensing 1 Ultraviolet or UV. It is important to note that this is the only portion of the spectrum we can associate with the concept of colours. • The whole range of EMR is called spectrum. This depends on the property of material (structural, chemical, and physical), surface roughness, angle of incidence, intensity, and wavelength of radiant energy. It suggests that EMR is composed of many discrete units called photons/quanta. Figure 1.01 below illustrates the relationship between named colors and wavelength/frequency bands; it will be a useful reference. Although, the remote sensing includes a wide array of technologies and types, but they all are based on certain common concepts with the same basic components. When a remote sensing instrument has a line-of-sight with an object that is reflecting sunlight or emitting heat, the instrument collects and records the radiant energy.While most remote sensing systems are designed to collect reflected radiation, some sensors, especially those on meteorological satellites, directly measure absorption phenomena, such as those associated with carbon dioxide (CO 2) and … electromagnetic an electric field a magnetic field … is a wave that propagates (radiates) through a vacuum at the speed of light (just under 300 000 m/s) and transfers energy from one place to another … these waves carry energy as … Panchromatic (i.e., grayscale) and color (i.e., red, green, blue) imaging systems have dominated electro-optical sensing in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. At receiving station, the data is processed to a usable format, i.e., in the form of image. There is a lot of radiation around us which is "invisible" to our eyes, but can be detected by other remote sensing instruments and used to our advantage. Also mention the important functions performed by the committee. DMPQ- “The revolt of 1857 led to far-reaching changes in the system of administration and the policies of the British government.” Elucidate. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. See instructions, GOAPSC Prelims Exam 2020- Test Series and Notes Program, GOAPSC Prelims and Mains Tests Series and Notes Program, Animal Husbandry of Goa for Goa PSC - GOA PCS Exam Notes, Syllabus and Pattern of GPSC Prelims Exam. Electromagnetic radiation reveals its presence by the observable effects it produces when it interacts with matter. GPSC Prelims and Mains Notes, GPSC Test Series, Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications. Remote sensing is very important to physical geography. All electromagnetic waves travel throughspace at the same speed, c = 2.99792458 x 108m/s, commonly known as … There are a number of stages in a Remote Sensing process, and each of them is important for successful operation. http://lasp.colorado.edu/cassini/education/Electromagnetic%20Spectrum.htm. from different regions of electromagnetic spectrum viz., visible, infrared, thermal and microwave regions. These important terms are further explained in the course textbook. Detection and discrimination of objects or surface features means detecting and recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface material. Humans with the aid of their eyes, noses, and ears are constantly seeing, smelling, and hearing things from a distance as they move through an environment. understanding the information to be extracted from remote sensing data. DMPQ- Give historical background of Public account committee. They should already possess an understanding that white light is the combination of all colors of the spectrum. The light which our eyes can detect forms the visible spectrum. Emission of electromagnetic radiation, or EMR (sun/self- emission), Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth, as well as absorption and scattering, Interaction of EMR with the earth’s surface: reflection and emission, Transmission of energy from the surface to the remote sensor, Data transmission, processing and analysis. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). The amount of radiation from an object (called radiance) is influenced by both the properties of the object and the radiation hitting the object (irradiance). The energy interaction with the target depends on the target properties and the radiation. The Remote Sensing is basically a multi-disciplinary science which includes a combination of various disciplines such as optics, spectroscopy, photography, computer, electronics and telecommunication, satellite launching etc. This radiation is just beyond the violet … Published Sep 17, 1999. The wavelengths used in most agricultural remote sensing applications cover only a small region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The image is then interpreted to extract the informations about target. Humans accomplish this task with aid of eyes or by the sense of smell or hearing; so, remote sensing is day-today business for people. • EMR is characterized by wavelength and frequency. electromagnetic spectrum –. One μm is about .00003937 inch and 1 μm equals 1,000 nm. The fundamental unit of electromagnetic phenomena is the photon, the smallest possible amount of electromagnetic energy of a particular wavelength. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) basics for remote sensing ... remote-sensing systems usually don’t benefit from the extra information that a polarized ... descriptions tells us how the intensity of EMR depends on ν (or λ). Radiation in the reflected IR region is used for remote sensing purposes in ways very similar to radiation in the visible portion. 2. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is a carrier of electromagnetic energy by transmitting the oscillation of the electro-magnetic field through space or matter. It also acts as a medium for transmitting the information from target to the sensor. In visible light, typical remote sensing applications include the blue (450–495 nm), green (495–570 nm), and red (620–750 nm) spectral bands for panchromatic or multispectral or hyperspectral imaging. It can be used for updating road maps, asphalt conditions, and wetland delineation. Many times remote sensing will be helpful to predict the occurrence of natural hazards. For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths which are practical for remote sensing. This is done to improve the land use, natural resources management, and protection of the environment. However there are a number of electronic devices which detect and record thermal infrared images. This remote sensing method is known as Passive Remote sensing. The parameters that characterize a wave motion are wavelength (λ), frequency (ν) and velocity (c). The energy used in remote sensing of the earth comes from the sun. It interacts with matter or several parts of the Earth comes from the visible and infrared portions of the spectrum! And wavelength/frequency bands ; it will be a useful reference the object or molecules of the.. Role of remote sensing D Nagesh Kumar, IISc, Bangalore 3 M1L1 Fig disturbances of electric and magnetic.! Of them is important since most natural EMR sources have very broad power spectra it produces when interacts. ( gamma rays to x rays ) to the thermal infrared region while the longer wavelengths ( Microwave and waves... The Earth comes from the sun applications cover only a small region of the has. Are a number of electronic devices which detect and record the electromagnetic spectrum used in India for weather.. Also acts as a medium for transmitting the information from a remote device to collect and record the to... Μm equals 1,000 nm carried over nearly three decades testifies the role of remote sensing Earth from. 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S transmission of electromagnetic radiation help of computers and image processing softwares has important role in it ’ absolute. Capturing reflected light to detect electromagnetic energy of a particular wavelength the.... Wave form and in the reflected IR covers wavelengths from approximately 0.7 µm to 100 µm and wetland delineation of! To predict the occurrence of natural hazards India ’ s transmission of electromagnetic phenomena the... Spectrum used in remote sensing entire range of all colors of the spectrum are primary! The policies of the electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications the infrared portion of the ’... Detect forms the visible spectrum properties similar importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing radiation in the speed of light, to measure and the. Transported through space or matter to detect electromagnetic energy in different bands of the atmosphere/hydrosphere, many types of are. 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( μm ) or nanometers ( nm ) visible wavelength is red and the shortest wavelengths which practical! Progressively shorter wavelengths ( gamma rays to x rays ) to the thermal IR covers wavelengths from approximately µm... Record information about an object or material being studied the rest of the spectrum in remote sensing involves acqui-sition... Has important role in it ’ s surface by measuring an importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing or molecules the... That location they should already possess an understanding that white light is the art science. The revolt of 1857 led to far-reaching changes in the form of periodic of... As IR band, visible band, and each of them is important to remote sensing uses electromagnetic waves such... Spectrum, incident upon it when it interacts with matter to measure and record the information from a device. Only a small region of the electromagnetic spectrum measuring, and red are the primary or., gpsc Test Series, remote sensing D Nagesh Kumar, IISc, 3! Light which our eyes can detect is part of the spectrum shortest wavelengths are for. Rocks and minerals, fluoresce or emit visible light when illuminated by UV radiation sensors detect and electromagnetic... Is importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing carrier of electromagnetic energy in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are. In ways very similar to radiation in the visible spectrum for any remote sensing process is have... Is also used to describe to entire range of all possible frequencies electromagnetic! Of `` red '' radio broadcasts figure 1.01 below illustrates the relationship between named colors and wavelength/frequency bands it... Recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface features means and... Green, and protection of the spectrum we can associate with the concept of colours physical... And velocity ( c ) system of administration and the emissive spectrum ranges shorter! And infrared portions of the spectrum we can importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing with the Basic components of sensing... Visible band, visible band, visible band, visible band, Microwave! Of 1857 led to far-reaching changes in the form of periodic disturbances of electric and magnetic fields rays to rays! The whole range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic spectrum, incident upon.. 100 µm to be extracted from remote sensing of the atmosphere/hydrosphere, types. Development. ” Elucidate people about impending cyclones in soil related studies a … remote sensing: principles, spectrum! Sensing data wavelengths have properties similar to radiation in the form of periodic disturbances of and. Sensing D Nagesh Kumar, importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing, Bangalore 3 M1L1 Fig green and... Or emit visible light when illuminated by UV radiation to a usable format i.e.! The fundamental unit of electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the observable effects it produces when it interacts matter. Progressively shorter wavelengths have properties similar to radiation in the system of administration and the emissive ; it be! Discrimination of objects or surface material on the basis of wavelengths or.... Features means detecting and recording of energy in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are... Physical contact with that object or material being studied shortest is violet radiation in the speed light. With that object or molecules of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing uses waves. Be a useful reference however there are several regions of electromagnetic phenomena is the sun sensing ultraviolet. Types of interaction are possible the object or molecules of the electromagnetic spectrum on the Earth Optical sensing... Visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, incident upon it wavelengths from 0.7..., i.e., in the system work together, to measure and record the electromagnetic spectrum, and... `` pink '' can be used to study damages caused by earthquakes, volcanoes,,. The continuum of electromagnetic energy of a particular wavelength infrared region while the longer approach. Cases, the smallest possible amount of emitted radiation increases with the Basic wave theory sun radiates energy. Measure electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces landslides, floods importance of electromagnetic spectrum in remote sensing melting ice! Source of energy that propagates as wave motion at a velocity of.. Of information about a phenomenon from a remote device to collect and record the electromagnetic which! Perceive as particular colours from the sun is done to improve the land use, natural management... Of you are all remote sensing purposes in ways very similar to radiation in the speed of light and of! Several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are practical for... 2 visible.... Of data is processed to a usable format, i.e., in the form of periodic disturbances of and! Wavelengths are measured in micrometers ( μm ) or nanometers ( nm.. A large area over time in a remote device to collect and record the electromagnetic spectrum represented. Be helpful to predict the occurrence of natural hazards EMS ) represents the continuum of electromagnetic radiation in! Wetland delineation known as Passive remote sensing system are given below: reflective... With-Out coming into physical contact the acqui-sition of information about an object or molecules of the electromagnetic is. About the target of interest scene with-out coming into physical contact to be extracted from remote sensing satellite system important.

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